The United States Wants the World to Forget These Prisoners

July 21, 2014

A product of the war on terror, Communications Management Units (CMUs) have cut hundreds of Americans—most of whom are Muslim—off from the outside world, often by labeling their acts of dissent “terrorism.”

Communications Management Unit

Molly Crabapple, Shahawar Siraj, 2014.

Andy Stepanian is one of the kindest humans I’ve ever met.

An activist publicist, Andy draws attention to Americans imprisoned for their beliefs. He is straitlaced and gentle, and the only time he ever declined to buy me dinner was when I offended his veganism by eating chicken fingers. But Andy is also a felon. As one of the SHAC7, he spent three years locked in a cage for urging people to employ militant protest techniques against the animal-testing corporation Huntingdon Life Sciences. He spent his last six months in prison in a Communications Management Unit (CMU).

CMUs exist to cut off prisoners from the outside world. The prisoners’ every word is recorded. They are strip-searched before and after each visit from loved ones (in case they write messages on their body). Letters are severely restricted; phone calls are limited to two 15-minute calls a week. CMU prisoners may spend decades without hugging their wives or children.

Like Guantanamo Bay, the CMU is a child of the war on terror. In 2006 and 2008, respectively, the Bureau of Prisons, under the directorship of Harley Lappin, created two secret units: one in Terre Haute, IN, and the other in Marion, IL. The bureau’s stated purpose was “Limited Communication for Terrorist Inmates” But as at Guantanamo, Muslims were the real targets. Muslims make up roughly 70 percent of the prisoners in CMUs but only 6 percent of the federal prison population. The CMUs are part of a philosophy that makes Muslim synonymous with terrorist, that views “terrorists” as both contagious and superhuman—so dangerous that they must be subject to ultimate control.

Andy was the rare white CMU prisoner. Guards told him he was there as a “balancer.” CMUs are another reflection of the double standard to which the United States holds Muslims. Acts of speech, travel or association that would be A-OK for a Christian are enough to get a Muslim branded a terrorist.

Communications Management Unit

Molly Crabapple, Shifa Sadequee, 2014.

CMU prisoner Shifa Sadequee was kidnapped by U.S. forces in Bangladesh at the age of 19, allegedly tortured and rendered to the United States. He spent three years in solitary awaiting his trial for terrorism. His crimes? He played paintball and took video footage of U.S. monuments. The former activity was labeled “paramilitary training”; the latter, “casing videos” for an attack. The judge sentenced him to 17 years.

Pharmacist Tarek Mehanna should be called a dissident—but that’s not a label America allows Muslims. A scathing critic of U.S. foreign policy, Mehanna believed Muslims under attack in their own countries had the right to armed self-defense. He translated and subtitled some jihadi materials and briefly traveled to Yemen. Nothing he did would have been looked at askance if he were a Tea Party member speaking about fellow gun enthusiasts. But as a Muslim Mehanna was convicted of material support for terrorism. His sentence? Seventeen years.

At his sentencing, Mehanna delivered a chilling, eloquent statement about resisting oppression: “In your eyes, I’m a terrorist, I’m the only one standing here in an orange jumpsuit and it’s perfectly reasonable that I be standing here in an orange jumpsuit. But one day, America will change and people will recognize this day for what it is. They will look at how hundreds of thousands of Muslims were killed and maimed by the U.S. military in foreign countries, yet somehow I’m the one going to prison for ‘conspiring to kill and maim’ in those countries…

“The government says that I was obsessed with violence, obsessed with ‘killing Americans.’ But, as a Muslim living in these times, I can think of a lie no more ironic.”

Communications Management Unit

Molly Crabapple, Tarek Mehanna, 2014.

Mehanna is in a CMU for speech. Few American free speech defenders noticed.

While most Americans were rightly nauseated by the NSA programs revealed by Edward Snowden, they gave less thought to the brutal surveillance that Muslim communities have suffered since 9/11. Mosques, student associations and even restaurants were monitored throughout the country. Informants tried to rope the naive or the mentally ill into expressing support for jihad. If an agent was able to pressure an unstable young man into driving a car or buying some backpacks, he could arrest him for assisting terrorism. The agent would receive professional accolades for making the arrest; the young man, decades in jail. For the untold cash it poured into spying on Muslims, the FBI seldom discovered a plot that it did not concoct itself.

CMU prisoner Shahawar Matin Siraj had no explosives or concrete plan of attack, but that did not prevent a judge from sentencing him to 30 years for plotting to bomb New York’s Herald Square. The informant who befriended him, and then goaded him into the plan, was paid $100,000 by the NYPD.

Imprisonment is erasure. The state locks a person in a cage—without context, without community, without love. He becomes not human but a widget passing through a system of absolute control. The CMU enacts a double erasure: it represents the ultimate scission of the prisoner from his non-prison self. You are in a box. You are no one. You belong to us.

Andy is working on a documentary about CMUs. He asked me to draw pictures of some prisoners. Drawing is slow, deliberate. It is an antidote to forgetting men the state wants the world to forget.

One night I worked on a portrait of Ghassan Elashi. A former vice president of an internet company, Elashi was sentenced to 65 years in prison for running the Holy Land Foundation, which was the largest Muslim charity in the United States until the Bush administration shut it down in December 2001. Through charitable organizations in Gaza, Holy Land allegedly funneled money to Hamas, which the United States classifies as a terrorist organization.

Communications Management Unit

Molly Crabapple, Ghassan Elashi, 2014.

Andy invited Elashi’s daughter, Noor, to my studio. She brought a photograph of her father. I was unable to draw him from life, as the USP Marion is not easy to visit. The three of us stayed up late into the night, me rendering Noor’s father’s eyes in careful watercolor, Andy filming us as she watched me draw.

Noor is a stylishly dressed young writer who sidelines as a baker of gluten-free cupcakes. But when she talks about her father, her voice grows cold with pain. She remembers how FBI agents threw him to the floor when they raided their home. She remembers prison guards screaming at her young brother, who has Down syndrome, when he tried to hug his dad (she and her brother were subsequently denied visits for months). She remembers how her father was barred from making phone calls for writing his name on a yoga mat.

She does not believe for a moment that her father deliberately funneled funds to Hamas.

Noor’s situation shows how CMUs rip apart not only prisoners’ lives but also the lives of their families and community. Noor is still fighting for her dad.

In Counterpunch, Noor wrote, “My father is my pillar, whose high spirits transcend all barbed-wire-topped fences, whose time in prison did not stifle his passion for human rights.”

Noor’s words point to one of the war on terror’s most insidious legacies. The war on terror flattened Muslims into bogeymen. They could no longer be troubled young men. Nor could they be political dissidents, heads of charities or defenders of human rights. Dissent was equated with terrorism.

In making a fetish of the word “freedom,” America revoked the freedom of so many within her borders. Civil liberties defenders must remember that Muslims are not a separate class of people. Attacks on Muslims’ rights are attacks on human rights.

Correction: July 24, 2014
An earlier version of this article inaccurately stated that the visitors of prisoners held in CMUs are strip-searched. It is the inmates who are strip-searched before and after visits.

This piece, commissioned by Creative Time Reports, has also been published by Salon and Alternet.

  • Félix Marqués

    This is good journalism.

  • katekari

    Excellent reportage from Molly Crabapple, as always.

  • gregorylent

    never heard of cmu until this .. america is insane

    • Balthazars Rebellion

      It’s insane because it is how Israel uses the United States to do their dirty work. Not only does the US fight wars for Israel, they are also a nefarious prison and torture system for them as well.

      • Kevin Schmidt

        Wrong! Israel is a puppet of the US. When the US Government needs dirty deeds done, they call on their attack dog Israel.

  • Commuted

    Arrested and silenced. Doesn’t sound like America, must be something wrong.

  • Anastasia Valentine

    Law enforcement, the cancer of the social world!

  • Showket Ferdaus

    My son Rezwan Ferdaus was in Marion CMU for entire 2013. Since February 2014, he is in Terre Haute CMU.

  • H.P. Loathecraft

    Wait…so you mean that it it’s not the American Christian community that’s being persecuted?

    • Kevin Schmidt

      When did that ever happen, besides never?

  • Portlyric

    This is how it starts. They go after the disenfranchised and the vulnerable. Almost imperceptibly everyone’s rights begin eroding. People make the mistake of believing that it couldn’t happen to them because they’ve done nothing wrong. They don’t realize that we’re all frogs in a pot that is slowly being brought to a boil. We become numb to injustice because it hasn’t found it’s way to our door YET. Our laws either protect everyone or they protect no one.

    • fstevens

      Dang, wasn’t Obama supposed to change everything? What happened to the hope?

  • Moloch

    Communications Management Unit sounds so benign

  • Hamja Ahsan

    What a superb and important piece of journalism.

  • Laila Yaghi

    My son, Ziyad Yaghi is also in prison on fake terrorism charges brought up by the corrupt FBI. He is serving 31.5 years and is under harsh conditions in constant lock down (in what is called , the SHU) In Coleman 2, Fl. Our lives have been ruined for nothing! His innocent young life has been interrupted. Tomorrow marks 5 years of my son being in prison! Follow me on fb and also

  • fstevens

    Are you as equally enraged at how vast numbers of muslims throughout the world treat people who believe differently than they do? Will you be creating any artwork to protest the BEHEADINGS of non-muslim children? Or do you think the average ISIS member just would love to give you a warm hug as he celebrates your compassion? I’m not saying it’s wrong for you to protest injustice as you see it, but there is true evil sweeping the Middle East these days, but hey, if you’re stuck on blaming the United States for everything, while simultaneously enjoying the rewards of our capitalist system and enjoying our freedoms, then go right ahead.

    • N

      How the fuck is ISIS “vast numbers of muslims throughout the world”? And for the record, it is United States’ and their allies’ incessant meddling that contributed to the creation of this organisation, but you’re gonna sit their and conflate 2 billion Muslims throughout this whole planet with militants in Iraq. Nobody wants your shitty “rewards of our capitalist system and enjoying our freedoms”. It’s you who came shoving your “freedom” down everyone’s throats. The audacity to sit their and claim we’re somehow using US as a scapegoat for our problems when US has been responsible for millions of Muslim and non-Muslim deaths, and innumerable military and political interventions in wherever there is unrest… sit in that bubble of ignorance forever. We know you love preserving your status quo and never taking any responsibility for the messes you create. Incompassionate rags.